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It is used at the production of pencils and the lubricating processes of moving parts due to its softness, and at the casting and refracter industry due to its resistance against heat and acids, at the manufacture of pots and laboratory materials. Black coloured fire proof dyes are generally made of graphite. It is used at the manufacture of electrodes, motor brushes, battery rods and the production of electronic devices due to its good electrical conductivity, too. Beside this is Graphite used as an additive for tyres, automobile brake linings, matches and motor oils, too.
The indfustry branches which consume graphite as a raw material are the pencil and casting industry. Dye manufacturers and iron-steel plants use imported graphite and graphite products. Fixed carbon of 60-70% is requested in the graphite used in the casting industry. This ratio is in the pencil industry more than 95%.
Where is graphite used?
1. As Lubricant at Machine Parts
It can be used as a lubrication material in machine bearings due to its long term adhesion feature on machine parts. The graphite able to be used in this field must be very pure (at least 95% graphitized carbon) and not contain rigid minerals like quartz. Depending on the type of the carrier liquid, the graphite constitutes here a dry or wet layer. The dry type is used at oven chains and trolleys, motor cylinders, marine vehicles and chemical plants; and the wet layer type is used under high pressure, at ball bearings.
2. In the Casting Industry
The main utilization area of 40 - 60% graphitized carbon containing graphite powders are foundries. These are used at the manufacture of casting dies by mixing these with clay and sand. Graphite can be replaced in this industry sector by milled coke powder or petroleum coke mixed with bentonite or olivine.
3. At the Production of Pencil Graphites
Pencil graphites are made of the mixture of processed kaoline, bentonite and graphite. The most suitable graphite type for this usage is the one with fine particles and which is compact. Natural graphite is more preferred due to its softness. Its value in this field increases proportional to its pureness. Amorphous graphite is used for low quality pencil graphites. The desired graphitetype for both situations is the one which doesn't contain abrasive materials (quartz) and contains 96% graphitized carbon.
4. At the Production of Motor and Generator Brushes
These materials are made of amorphous graphite at high temperatures of rift type natural graphite. Therefore needs the graphitzed carbon content of the graphite be more than 85%. With tar, coal tar bound prahite or metal (copper or silver) powders are used at the production of graphite brushes.
5. Other Usage Areas ofg Graphite
Plenty of graphite is started to be used in the dry battery industry during the recent years. Whilst the scale type (plate type) and graphite powder are the most suitable for this, they need to contain graphitic carbon of at least 85%.